“This England” – John of Gaunt’s Famous Speech in Shakespeare’s ‘Richard II’

In William Shakespeare’s English history play Richard II John of Gaunt delivers a patriotic speech, which has been often quoted ever since. 

Shakespeare II
‘Richard II and John of Gaunt’ by Sir John Gilbert (1817-1897). This 19th-century engraving is taken from page 384 of Die Shakespeare-Illustration (Teil 2) (ed. Hammerschmidt-Hummel, 2003).

In Act II, Scene I of William Shakespeare’s English history play Richard II the dying John of Gaunt awaits the arrival of King Richard II at Ely House in London, while talking to the Duke of York, his brother. Both have a very critical attitude towards the king.

John of Gaunt eventually delivers a famous speech. As far as the reception of Shakespeare is concerned, his speech has been regarded as an invocation of English patriotism. Correspondingly, it has been often quoted ever since. This especially applies to phrases like “this scepter’d isle” or “[t]his blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England”.

First of all, Gaunt’s speech evokes an image of England that is majestic, beautiful and protected from outside attacks or harm. It is also depicted as a fertile, feared, highly respected and divinely favoured country. Generally speaking, the depiction of “[t]his blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England” gives the impression of a natural fortress and an organic whole.

However, John of Gaunt then laments that England has been rented out. Here he refers to King Richard’s methods and plans to fund his wars in Ireland. (That is, parcels of land are leased to wealthy noblemen to raise money.) Thus, England (“this scepter’d isle”) – which is safe from outside harm and, in the past, conquered others – harms itself at present or, so to speak, “[h]ath made a shameful conquest of itself” because of internal corruption.

shakespeare-ii1.jpg
‘John of Gaunt’s death’ (anon., 1874). This woodcut is taken from page 385 of Die Shakespeare-Illustration (Teil 2) (ed. Hammerschmidt-Hummel, 2003).

A Part of John of Gaunt’s Speech (and Photos)

“This royal throne of kings, this scepter’d isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,

300200_213254115397095_4891187_n
Garden – Hampton Court Palace (Surrey, 2011)

This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,

Against the envy of less happier lands,
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings,
Fear’d by their breed and famous by their birth,
Renowned for their deeds as far from home,

For Christian service and true chivalry,
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry,
Of the world’s ransom, blessed Mary’s Son,
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,
Dear for her reputation through the world,

Is now leased out, I die pronouncing it,
Like to a tenement or pelting farm:
England, bound in with the triumphant sea
Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege
Of watery Neptune, is now bound in with shame,

317529_213364505386056_2312374_n
Seven Sisters‘ (Sussex, 2011)

With inky blots and rotten parchment bonds:
That England, that was wont to conquer others,
Hath made a shameful conquest of itself.
Ah, would the scandal vanish with my life,
How happy then were my ensuing death!”

 

Note: The other photos show Rochester (Kent), Rochester Castle, Leeds Castle (Kent), St Martin’s Church (Canterbury, Kent), Rochester Cathedral (outside and inside), Battle Abbey (Sussex; inside), a tomb in a chapel at Arundel Castle (West Sussex), Battle Abbey (outside).

Source:

Hammerschmidt-Hummel, Hildegard. (Ed.) Die Shakespeare-Illustration (1594-2000). Teil 2. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003.

Published by

freedomfactsandstories

My name is Nils Zumbansen, Ph.D. I'm from Germany. The title of my blog already indicates what my blog is about. To put it more precisely, my bilingual blog covers the following topics: Western civilization, economic principles, British history, the British legal system, the concept of liberty, American politics, church history, Christianity, current affairs and the history and philosophy of science. Apart from these topics, I'm also interested in narratives and stories (i.e. literature, films and TV shows). I (will) publish my articles in English and German. // Mein Name ist Nils Zumbansen. Ich bin promovierter Anglist. Mein bilinguales Blog dreht sich um folgende Themen: Europäische und amerikanische Kultur, ökonomische Grundprinzipien, britische Geschichte, das britische Rechtssystem, Freiheitskonzepte, amerikanische Politik, Kirchengeschichte, das Christentum, aktuelle Ereignisse sowie Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Wissenschaftsphilosophie. Daneben bin ich auch an narrativen Strategien, Literatur, Filmen und TV-Serien interessiert. Ich schreibe meine Artikel auf Deutsch und Englisch.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s